Sex Dating Arlington Nebraska

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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Sexual violence SV , including sexual harassment SH , is a ificant public health problem affecting adolescent health and well-being. This study extends prior research by evaluating the effectiveness of a comprehensive teen dating violence prevention model, Dating Matters, on SV and SH perpetration and victimization, inclusive of any victim-perpetrator relationship, among middle school students.

Dating Matters includes classroom-delivered programs for youth in 6th, 7th, and 8th grades; community-based programs for parents; a youth communications program; training for educators; and community-level activities. Structural equation modeling was employed with multiple imputation to for missing data. Overall, Dating Matters shows promise for reducing SV and SH, occurring both within and outside dating relationships, through middle school. The online version of this article Sexual violence 1 —including sexual dating violence and sexual harassment—affects millions of US teens each year with harmful effects on their short- and long-term health, safety, and well-being Ackard et al.

Thus, early adolescence—when sexual behavior patterns are developing—provides an opportune time to intervene with youth to reduce their risk of SV perpetration or victimization as they mature and enter intimate relationships. Only a handful of programs have been shown to be promising or effective for preventing SV among adolescents Community Preventive Services Task Force ; DeGue et al. Despite these advances in the evidence base, it is increasingly clear that no single program will be sufficient to reduce rates of SV—or other forms of violence—at the population level DeGue et al.

Comprehensive prevention strategies that address risk for SV across the social ecology with multiple, coordinated interventions may have greater potential to change the social and physical contexts that influence risk behavior—in addition to risk and protective characteristics of the individual DeGue et al. When deed to address shared risk and protective factors across related health outcomes, comprehensive prevention approaches may also have greater potential to influence multiple forms of violence and health risk behaviors, including SV and TDV, increasing the efficiency of prevention efforts Wilkins et al.

Yet, to date, no comprehensive prevention strategies for SV or TDV have undergone rigorous evaluation to assess their efficacy for reducing violence risk relative to existing evidence-based, single-program prevention strategies. In contrast to the existing single-program prevention strategies, Dating Matters is a multicomponent, comprehensive TDV prevention model focused on middle school youth as well as their parents, schools, and neighborhoods.

Dating Matters addresses a range of risk and protective factors that impact early adolescents ages 11—14 across the social ecology, including many factors shared with other forms of violence. Dating Matters youth programs, for example, address several factors associated with both SV and TDV, such as healthy relationship skills, healthy communication skills, consent education, sexual coercion, bullying, SH, dating safety, supporting victims, relationship rights, and getting help. Dating Matters was originally developed to address TDV and prior research suggests it is effective at preventing TDV perpetration and victimization—including a combined measure of physical, sexual, and emotional violence by a current or former dating partner Niolon et al.

Additional analyses have also found positive effects of Dating Matters on other related outcomes, including physical peer violence, bullying, cyber-bullying, weapon carrying, alcohol and substance abuse, and delinquency Estefan et al. Extending past research, the current study examines the effectiveness of the Dating Matters comprehensive TDV prevention model compared to a standard-of-care TDV program on SV and SH victimization and perpetration outcomes among middle school students.

While prior research included SV against a dating partner in the assessment of TDV, the current study measures SV and SH exposure inclusive of any victim-perpetrator relationship. Specifically, we hypothesized that students exposed to Dating Matters will report less SV and SH victimization and perpetration over time compared to students in the standard-of-care condition. Although CDC defines SV broadly to encompass a range of nonconsensual sexual acts including rape, sexual coercion, unwanted sexual contact, and SH, we use the term SV in the current study to refer to any physically forced sexual contact and examine non-physical SH separately.

Additional details on the study methods and sample are available in Niolon et al. All assenting students with parental consent grades 6—8 were surveyed during the school day in fall and spring of each school year. Data were collected from five cohorts of middle school students from to Cohorts 1—3 were in 8th, 7th, and 6th grades, respectively, in the — school year. Cohorts 4 and 5 were added as 6th graders in — and —, respectively Niolon et al.

A total of 6 waves of data are included collected from two cohorts of 6th—8th grade students in the DM and SC schools over four school years fall to spring Each cohort is assessed in the fall and spring of their 6th, 7th, and 8th grade years, for a total of 6 waves for each cohort. Cohorts 3 and 4 were analyzed separately. As cohort 3 started in the first year of implementation and cohort 4 started in the second year of implementation, we anticipated potential cohort effects due to improvements in implementation quality in year 2 and greater potential for school-level effects e.

The overall survey participation rate was See Supplemental Fig. All three youth programs focus on developing healthy relationship skills through developmentally appropriate content that progresses from an emphasis on peer and family relationships in 6th grade to dating partners in 8th grade. The parent programs include an adapted version of the evidence-based Parents Matter!

The parent programs focus on skills for positive parenting and effective parent-child communication about healthy relationships. Each of the multi-session youth and parent programs provide interactive opportunities for skill building and development of positive norms and behaviors. The multiple programmatic and intervention components of the Dating Matters model were deed to work together to address risk and protective factors for TDV across levels of the social ecology through implementation over all 3 years of middle school Teten Tharp All of these programs and components were delivered during each year of implementation.

For additional information on the Dating Matters model, see www. Schools in the standard-of-care condition received Safe Dates in 8th grade only. Safe Dates is a session, school-based program developed for 8th and 9th graders that has been shown to prevent physical and sexual TDV perpetration and victimization at 4 years follow-up Foshee et al. As noted, Safe Dates is also included in the Dating Matters model as the 8th grade youth program; thus, all 8th grade study participants received this program in each year of implementation.

Response options were 1 never , 2 1—3 times , 3 4—9 times , and 4 10 or more times. Raw scores for sexual violence perpetration ranged from 1. These outcomes were modeled as manifest variables, since only one item was available for perpetration and one for victimization. SH was assessed with 6 victimization or 7 perpetration items asking whether they had engaged in a form SH towards someone else, or vice versa, in their lifetime baseline or in the last 4 months at follow-up.

To focus our statistical tests on structural relationships group mean differences , we created an item average composite for perpetration and another for victimization. Reliability ranged from. Raw scores for sexual harassment perpetration ranged from 1. Prior to analysis, missing data were multiply imputed datasets using PcAux and programmed in R Lang et al. Because of the way the data were aligned for analyses and other unplanned reasons e. The MAR assumption is appropriate for a large-scale data collection such as Dating Matters, given the breadth of measures that were included in the overall protocol.

Our evaluation approach involved setting equality constraints on the means and testing the effect of these constraints on the overall model. This approach is rendered straightforward when other parameters in the model are minimal. For example, when covariate adjustment is conducted as a pre-analysis step, group means are interpretationally equivalent across constrained solutions; this is not the case when covariate adjustment is conducted within the constrained models i.

In other words, school identifiers were used in the covariate adjustment stage to correct for non-independence of observations. Residuals taken from this regression and corrected for outliers served as covariate-adjusted outcomes in the analysis model For details, see Niolon et al. To preserve the POMS scaling, we selected meaningful zero points for each of the covariates. We evaluated program effects on SV and SH within biological sex and cohort groups using multiple group structural equation models with a maximum likelihood estimator, using Mplus, version 7.

For each outcome, we estimated the means at each time point to obtain model fit statistics against which subsequent models were compared. We then placed equality constraints on statistically similar means. This approach balances Type I and Type II errors and is well-suited to simultaneous tests of many hypotheses in complex models Little and Lopez Constrained means were evaluated for statistical separation by means of post hoc Wald tests. Generally, an optimal solution one in which further constraints resulted in failure to maintain adequate model fit was found within five attempts.

If the chi-square difference tests revealed ificant decrement in fit, we inferred a violation of baseline equivalence. Baseline equivalence in the outcome measure was established for all outcome models. See Niolon et al. Analyses across condition and cohort over time are presented below for sexual violence and sexual harassment outcomes. ificant protective intervention effects were found for Cohort 3 only see Fig. For Cohort 3 females, effects emerged at the end of 8th grade. For Cohort 3 males, differences were evident at the start of 7th grade and throughout 8th grade. Table 1.

Sexual violence perpetration and victimization across time by sex and cohort. Percent of Maximum Score POMS refers to the maximum possible score given the of items and response in a scale, rather than the maximum observed score. Mean POMS scores have been constrained to appear equal when not ificantly different; non-overlapping lines at any time point represent a statistically ificant group difference. ificant protective intervention effects were found for females only, emerging for both cohorts at the end of 8th grade see Fig.

ificant protective intervention effects were found for Cohort 3 only, emerging in the fall of 8th grade and continuing through the spring for both males and females see Fig. Sexual harassment perpetration and victimization across time by sex and cohort. Relative risk reduction represents the percent reduction in scores on measures of victimization and perpetration of sexual violence and sexual harassment for the condition relative to the standard-of-care condition. The s within the circles represent the average risk reduction for that outcome across the 4 groups sex by cohort , and the space between the diamonds represent the range of relative risk reduction on that outcome across the four groups.

ificant protective intervention effects were found for all groups sex and cohort; see Fig. Cohort 3 females saw intervention effects at all time points. Cohort 4 females and Cohort 3 males showed effects in the spring of 7th and 8th grade only.

In contrast, Cohort 4 males showed effects in the spring of 6th and 8th grade only. Notably, protective effects were found for all groups in the spring of 8th grade, at the final time point. However, patterns of findings were inconsistent across cohorts and by sex across outcomes. Despite differences in the patterns of effects over time and across groups, all ificant findings were in the hypothesized direction, indicating that Dating Matters had preventive intervention effects on SV and SH over and above the effects of an evidence-based standard-of-care comparison program, Safe Dates.

Although the reason is unclear, a similar pattern was seen in prior analyses from this trial examining different outcomes Estefan et al. These findings were inconsistent with our initial expectation that Cohort 4 might demonstrate stronger effects given an additional year of school-level intervention exposure and the potential for improved implementation quality in year 2.

Future planned analyses will examine differences in implementation across sites and cohorts to identify possible explanations for these patterns. Some gender differences were also observed. However, these effects tended to appear at multiple time points throughout middle school. In contrast, most of the effects for females did not emerge until the end of 8th grade. These patterns could be related to differential developmental onsets of SV and SH behaviors—providing different rates of exposure and opportunity—for males and females over time. The null effects for males on SV victimization were unsurprising given the very low base rates of these experiences among middle school boys.

The most consistent effects were found for SH victimization, with males and females in both cohorts seeing effects at multiple time points during middle school. Indeed, the Dating Matters 6th and 7th grade youth programs address SH against peers more directly than Safe Dates, which is focused on skills for healthy dating relationships.

It may also be that the effects of Dating Matters were more easily detected on SH victimization outcomes due to higher base rates of these behaviors. Research suggests that some SH behaviors emerge earlier than SV in adolescence and may serve as a developmental precursor Espelage et al. Future research could examine that developmental trajectory in this sample as they age into high school. This study has several notable limitations.

First, implementation and data collection in high-risk, urban communities with high mobility and competing school priorities compounded common challenges in conducting school-based prevention research, including school and participant retention, variability in implementation and school characteristics, and completion of consent forms as detailed in Niolon et al. As such, it is also not known whether these findings are generalizable to rural, suburban, or higher-income, lower-risk communities. Further, the differential effects of intervention exposure or fidelity are, by de, ignored in intent-to-treat analyses and as such may underestimate the effectiveness of the model when delivered as intended.

Finally, we relied on self-reported measures of violence perpetration and victimization. Although this is the most common and reliable means of assessing these behaviors, there is inherent potential for misreporting and underreporting.

Despite these limitations, the current study extends prior research examining the effects of Dating Matters to identify promising evidence of effectiveness on SV and SH through middle school. This study provides new evidence for a multi-level comprehensive prevention strategy for SV and SH in middle school, adding substantially to the menu of options available to communities interested in implementing evidence-based sexual violence prevention. In addition, it adds to other evidence showing the effects of Dating Matters on teen dating violence, physical peer violence, bullying, cyber-bullying, weapon carrying, alcohol and substance abuse, and delinquency Estefan et al.

These findings suggest that a comprehensive prevention model is more effective than a single-program standard-of-care intervention for preventing SV and SH across all types of relationships, with the potential for cross-cutting effects that address multiple forms of adolescent violence. Although the absolute difference in violence scores is relatively small, their potential for clinical ificance is bolstered by two factors. First, due to the comparative effectiveness de used in this study, the effects demonstrated by Dating Matters are over and above those expected for Safe Dates alone, which has strong evidence of effectiveness for preventing adolescent SV in prior research Foshee et al.

Second, Dating Matters was deed for implementation during middle school to provide greater opportunity for primary prevention effects, reaching youth as sexual behavior is still developing. As a result, the outcomes in this study are measured through 8th grade, when perpetration and victimization of sexual peer violence and sexual harassment is still at a developmentally lower rate than it will be in later adolescence.

As students age and have greater possibility of exposure to SV and SH in high school, any prevention effects that persist should be easier to identify. Given low disclosure rates of SV in middle school when sexual behavior patterns are still developing. As youth mature, exposure to SV and SH, and subsequent disclosure, may increase and these effects may strengthen.

Analysis of follow-up data through high school is planned to examine the long-term effects of Dating Matters For more on plans, see Niolon et al. In addition to demonstrating the effects of the Dating Matters comprehensive prevention model on these outcomes, this study provides additional evidence of the potential of comprehensive prevention efforts to achieve greater impacts relative to effective single-program models. As communities look to shift towards multicomponent violence prevention approaches, like Dating Matters, evidence that these approaches can achieve improved effectiveness on multiple outcomes is critical to assessing the value of investing in more resource-intensive comprehensive prevention efforts.

Further work is needed to understand the implementation costs of these efforts See Luo et al. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study. The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

The original online version of this article was revised due to a retrospective Open Access order. Notes: Dr. Andra Tharp is now at the U.

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